The wine is an alcoholic drink obtained after fermentation of the grape juice under the action of yeast (Saccharomyces ellipsoideus), which transforms ethanol and carbon dioxide sugars («boiling»of must). The other components of the wine are for the majority already present before fermentation: tanin, which comes from the raid, the skins and the pips of the barks; various esters, of which some are essential for the bouquet of the wine; various organic acids: acids malic, tartaric and acetic; this last comes from the transformation of alcohol by oxidation. One also finds glycerin and various rock salt, the whole being in solution in water more or less charged with colouring matters. The proportions of these various components, extremely variable, depend bea ground where pushes the vine. The wine can be prone to various diseases: the puncture transforms alcohol into acetic acid (manufacture of the vinegar); grease transforms it into oily liquid, following a bacterial infection.


WINE [ wain ] noun

1. Alcoholic drink coming from the fermentation of grape or grape juice (> Must) fresh > fam. Picolo, picrate, plonk, pive; préf. oeno -, vini- (­vx or like. Juice of the vine, juice of the vine, bacchic liquor, of Bacchus, mashed potaties septembrale - Rabelais). Manufacture, production of the wine (> Wine, viticultural): collect grape (> Vendange, to gather the grapes), pressing, picking off, pressing (> Presse, to press), processing of musts - plastering (> Plâtrer). sugaring (> Chaptalisation), mutage, sulphuring, treatment with tannin (> Muter, soufrer, to treat with tannin), pasteurization... - fermentation (> Cuvage, cit.; ferment, fermented), racking.

Loc. Wine of (wood) shaving. *. - Vx. Clarification of the wines (> To clear up) by deposit in the barrels, joining (> To stick, cit. 1), filtration, heating. Clarification with racking > Élier, to tap. Fermentation of the wine in storeroom (fermenting room). - Containers in which are made the clarification, ageing, the transport of the wine > Fût, cask (cit. 1 and 2), ton (cit. 2), barrel; of Bordeaux, 1. divides into sheets (cit. 1), muid (cit.), quartaut. Part (II, C, 2.) of wine. To put the wine out of barrels (> Enfûter, 1. entonner), in cellar (> Encaver), wine storehouses. Wine in circles. Transport of the wine in the lightnings, the tank cars. Leave for the transport of the wine. Avalage of the casks of wine - To tap, draw the wine - prov.. When the wine is drawn, it should be drunk * (1. Boire, cit. 43). Wine bores some > also Baquetures, wooden tub. Remain of wine at the bottom of a barrel > Baissière. Setting in bottles of the wine. Sealed wine - Breeding of the wine: prevention and processing of the diseases, monitoring of ageing, etc.

Stockbreeder, owner-stockbreeder of wines. Wine which is done, improves, rabonnit, works. Wine which deposits (> Dépôt), is clarified, stripped (cit. 26). To let put back the wine - pitched Wine (­Nectar, cit. 1), resined (­Resin, cit.). - Wine which is not preserved, which turns - Diseases of the wine: acescence (due to bacteria), bitterness, breakage, grease > To lubricate (II), 1. growth (B, 2.), turns. Sour wine, besaigre (vx), land-mark, mannity, piqué, turned > Fleur (II). To taste the wine.

Chemical composition of the wine: water (80-90 %), ethanol (8-18%), acids tartaric, malic, lactic...; protids, potassium, phosphates, calcium, magnesium; anthocyanes and tanins (red wines), etc (more than 150 substances). Transformation of the juice or must into wine by fermentation, under the action of yeasts - Country, area of wine, the wine, vine, vine growing. Ages of the wine. To like the wine.

(Described or preceded as conclusive). A wine (and adj. or compl. N), wines.

(Qualified according to the origin, quality). [ has ] Cour. Common beverage wine, running (nowadays, blended wine * or, in the viticultural areas, wine without special qualification). Wines of table, current consumption. Good wine. Fine wines. High-class wine, coming from a famous vintage. A wine excel. This wine is better, less good than that which we drank yesterday - (1798). Local wine, wine of the vintage, coming from a soil not delimited. Wine which feels its soil, does not contradict (cit. 8) its soil. Wine of owner. Wine of palus, sand - heavy wine: wine running rather extremely and poor (­Large blue *, large red * which stains). Bad wine > Picrate, residuary liquor. Wine gone up, coloured, recut - light local wine: wine of the soil, naturalness. A tart light local wine > Locust, ginguet, nasty wine, reginglard. - Wines of vintage, defined by a soil * (2.) and its type of vines given > 1. Vintage.

[ B ] Dr., comm. (in France). Loc. classified wine d' appellation d' origine control (A.O.C.), suppose a surface delimit of production, one encépagement specify, some content minimal of sweeten (must) and in alcohol (wine), a output maximum with hectare, some method of size of vine, of culture and of wine making in conformity with «use local, honest and constant»(it of exist more of 250 in France, include all the large vintage). - Classified wines simple (A.O.S.), removed in 1973. Delimited wines of higher quality (V.D.Q.S.), produced by soils well defined and answering precise rules of culture and wine making - Wines of quality produced in given areas (V.Q.P.R.D.) wines produced in the countries of the Common Market and answering similar criteria - Local wines (defined in 1968, then in 1973): personalized wines of table, without cuttings, answering qualitative criteria of encépagement (type of vines recommended), of surface of production, alcoholic strength (modulated according to the areas), of output (less than 100 hl to the hectare), of wine making (there are some more than 80 in France). - Wines of table, either " allowed for the benefit of a geographical ascription " (local wines, for France), or nonallowed (which can be resulting from cuttings: the cutting of the wines of table between them is allowed for the European Community).

[ C ] (According to the geographical origin). REM. 1. NAME OF THE WINES. The wines of quality are indicated by a label of origin; this one, in France, can correspond to an area (Bordeaux, Burgundy, Champagne), with a commune (Gevrey-Chambertin, Saint-Estèphe...), with a " climate " (in Burgundy), with a castle (in the of Bordeaux one). Another name is that of the type of vines (Sylvaner, Pinot Noir...). Finally the commercial appellatives (marks, names of people) are not mentioned here. Linguistically, a wine name corresponds to a frequency of use: one said wine of Burgundy, wine of Champagne, before saying: Burgundy, a Champagne - the names of the wines quoted below constitute more or less lexiconized names, in particular the wines French, Italian, and the liqueur wines Spanish and Portuguese; some German, Swiss wines and of the Maghreb are also known by their names, in French.


2. The syntagm wine French, normal and running in French out of France - e.g. in Quebec -, is not employed in France, except as regards international trade.

Wines of Burgundy.
Côtes-de-Nuits. Communes : Chambolle-Musigny, Fixin, Gevrey-Chambertin, Morey-Saint-Denis, Nuits-Saint-Georges, Vosne-Romanée, Flogey-Échezeaux, Vougeot - Rem. Each commune is divided into climates (e.g., in Vosne-Romanée: famous Romanée-Conti, Richebourg, la Tache, Grands-Échezeaux...; in Morey-Saint-Denis: Bonnes-Mares, Clos de la Roche); the same applies to the other "Côtes".
Côtes-de-Beaune. Communes: Aloxe-Corton, Auxey-Duresse, Beaune, Chassagne-Montrachet, Meursault, Monthélie, Pernand-Vergelesses, Pommard, Puligny-Montrachet, Saint-Aubin, Santenay, Savigny-lès-Beaune, Volnay.
Wines of the Côte Chalonnaise. Communes: Givry, Mercurey, Montagney, Rully.

Wines of the Beaujolais wine.
Communes: Juliénas, Chénas, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Saint-Amour (rather usual wine names).
Côtes-de-Brouilly (known as Brouilly). - REM. 34 other communes of the Rhone and the Saone & Loire districts are entitled to name wine Beaujolais-village.

Wines of Bordeaux.
Medoc * (1st "cru": Lafite-Rothschild, Latour, Margaux, Mouton-Rothschild; second "cru" : Léoville-LasCases, Gruaud-Larose, Pichon-Longueville, Ducru-Beaucaillou, etc; until the fifth "cru"). Main area : Cantenac, Pauillac, Saint-Estèphe, Saint-Julien.
Sauternes * and Barsac (great first vintage: Chateau Yquem; first vintages: la Tour-Blanche, Climens, Rabaud-Sigalas...) Main area : Bommes, Barsac, Sauternes.
Saint-Émilion * (first great vintages: Ausone, Beauséjour, Belair, Canon, Cheval-blanc...; great classified vintages: Larcis-Ducasse, Laroze...).
Graves * (first classified vintage: Haut-Brion; classified vintages - 1959 - : Carbonnieux, Malartic-Lagravière, La Mission Haut-Brion, Bouscaut...). Main area: Léognan, Pessac, Talence. Pomerol * (first great vintage: Pétrus; others believed: La Conseillante, Nénin...). REM. In addition to these vintages, other wines of Bordeaux are entitled to labels of origin controlled (e.g.: Barsac, Blaye, Bourg, Côtes-de-Bourg, Côtes-de-Blaye, Listrac, Loupiac...), sometimes corresponding in the name of one of the principal areas; others can only name Bordeaux; certain communes are entitled to name premières côtes of Bordeaux.

Wines of Mâconnais.
Mâcon (some wines add to name that of the commune; E.g.: Chaintres, Fuissé [Pouilly-Fuissé], Romanèche-Thorins, Solutré-Pouilly, Saint-Véran...)

Wines of Côtes-du-Rhône
Côtes-du-Rhône wine - Ex. : Châteauneuf-du-Pape, Condrieu, Côte-Rôtie, Crozes-Hermitage, Gigondas, Lirac, Tavel... > aussi Clairette (de Die).

Wines of Alsace *.
Generally indicated by type of vines: gewurtztraminer, Riesling, tokay - name disputed by the Hungarian producers of true the tokay - or pinot gris, muscatel, pinot or klevner, Sylvaner, chasselas or gutedel (white wines); pinot noir (red wine clearly).

Wines of the Jura - Ex. : Arbois (et vin de paille d'Arbois), côte-du-Jura, l'Étoile.

Wines of Savoy *, Crépy White wines of Seyssel. - Wines of Bugey (and roussette du Bugey).

Wines of South-West.
Béarn, Bergerac (and côtes de Bergerac), côtes de Buzey, Cahors, côtes de Duras, Gaillac, Irouléguy, Jurançon, Limoux (and blanquette de Limoux), Madiran, Monbazillac (white sweet), Pécharmant.

Wines of Provence: Bandol, Bellet, Cassis, côtes de Provence...

Wines of Languedoc-Roussillon: Collioure, Fitou, côtes du Roussillon; Corbières, Costières du Gard, Minervois, etc.

Wines of the Loire
(Nivernais, Berry). Pouilly, Quincy, Sancerre.
(Touraine). Bourgueil, Chinon, Montlouis, Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil, Vouvray
(Anjou). Anjou, Bonnezeaux, côteaux du Layon, Quarts-de-Chaume, Saumur (and Côteaux de Saumur), Savennières.
(Nantes Country). Muscadet wine; Gros-plant nantais (white wines).

Champagne wines.
Wines from "montagne de Rheims" (Mailly, Verzenay, Verzy, Trépail, Ambonnoy, Bouzy...)
Wines of the valley of the Marne (Cramant, Avize, Oger, Le Mesnil, Vertu..).
Natural champagne wine (blanc de blancs) or natural wines of Champagne.
Wines of côteaux champenois.
Red champagne wines (Cumières, Ambonnay, Bouzy).

Wines of Corsica: wine of Patrimonio, Ajaccio, Sartène, Calvi, cap Corse, Porto-Vecchio.


Swiss wines.
White wines of Valais : Fendant * (type of vine: chasselas), Johannisberg (Sylvaner), pinot gris or malvoisie, Hermitage, Arvine, Amigne, Humagne, Payen, Rèze. Red wine of Valais (Dôle, N F; Goron). Wines of the canton of Vaud (white: Dorin; reds: Sylvaguin): areas of Lavaux (Dézaley, Rivaz, Epesses, Villette, Saint-Saphorin), of "la Côte" (Vinzel, le Mont, Féchy, Tartegnin, Morges, Luins), of Chablais (Yvorne, Aigle, Bex, Ollon, Villeneuve). Wines of the canton of Geneva: Perlan (chasselas), of which "Bouquet Royal"; "Clefs d'or" (gamay); "Camérier" (pinot noir), "Goût du prieur" (riesling), etc. Wines of the canton of Neuchâtel: reds (pinot noir) and white, wines called Neuchâtel, sometimes followed name of the locality (Saint-Blaise, Cortaillod) or name of a vintage - Wines of the Germanic cantons: from Zurich, of Schaffhouse, of Grisons, of Saint-Gall, Thurgovie and Argovie.


Italian wines.
Reds. (Piedmont). Barolo, Gattinara, Barbaresco, Barbera, Freisa, Grignolino. (Lombardy). Valtellina. (Verona). Bardolino, Valpolicella. (Trentin). Santa Maddalena, Lago di Caldaro, Santa-Giustina. (Bologna). Lambrusco. (Tuscany). Chianti. (Rome). Castelli Romani (Frascati). (Napoli). Gragnano. - White. Cortese, Lugana, Soave (Verona), Terlano, Orvieto, Castelli Romani, Capri, Lacrima christi; Etna (Sicily). - Sparkling wine: Asti.


Spanish wines: Rioja; wines of Galice (Valderreas, Valle de Monterey), wines of Catalonia (Panadès, Tarragone), Valdepeñas, wines of Alicante, Yecla (rosé). Liqueur wines: Jerez, Manzanilla, Amontillado.


Portuguese wines. Vino Verde; rosé wines of Douro (like the " Mateus " and the " Faisca " or " Lancers "), wines of the Dao, Bairradas, Buçaco, Sangalhos, Ribatejo, etc > therefore Porto.


Greek wines. Reds (Naoussa of Macedonia), especially white (Peloponnese, Crete), often resined *. Wines of dessert (Muscatel of Samos).


Bulgarian wines. Reds (Gymza, wines of Plovdiv...), white (Dimiat); wines of dessert.


Rumanian wines (Dobroudja, Maldaire, Olténie, Transylvania).


German wines (80% of white wines): wines of the Rhine (Johannisberg), Hesse Rhenish (Liebfraumilch), Rhenish Palatinat; wines of the Moselle; wines of Franconie (Franken: valley of the Main, e.g.: Steinmein), wines of Wurtemberg.


Wines of Austria (of Weinvertel, Burgenland); New wine (Heurige) of the area Viennese.


Hungarian wines: of Gyöngyös, Eger (Bikaver or " blood of bull "), of Tokay (> Tokaj), of Kecsemet, Badacsony, etc.


Ex-Soviet wines, of Georgia, of Arménie, of Ukraine, of Russia (the Crimea), Azerbaïdjan, Ouzbékistan, etc.


Wines of North Africa
Algeria: Mostaganem (high Dahra), Mascara, côteaux de Tlemcen, Ain-el-Hadjar, etc
Tunisia: Bizerte, Mateur, Carthage, the cap Bon...; muscatels of Tunisia
Morocco: Berkane, Taza, Fès, Meknês, Sidi Slimane (Dar Bel Hanri), gray wines of Boulaouane, El-Jadida.


Wines of South Africa: wines of the Cape (standard " Burgundy " or - somerset-west; type " Bordeaux wine ").


Wines of Australia: Hunter Valley, Victoria, Barossa valley, Swan valley, Murray valley, etc.


American wines.
North : Wines of Canada (Ontario higher) and the State of New York - Wines of California (of which the best - varietal wines - are indicated by a variety of type of vine; e.g.: cabernet-sauvignon, pinot noir): wines of Mendocino, Sonoma, Napa, Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito; Sacramento and San Joaquin, Madera, Fresno, Tulare. Sparkling wines (" champagnes ") Californian. - Wines of Ohio, the State of Washington
South : Mexican Wines, wines of Uruguay, Peru, Argentinian Wines of Mendoza, San Juan (especially red). - Chilean Wines: North (muscatel), Center (valley of Aconcagua, Maïpo, Casablaca), South. The Chilean wines of quality can age (Gran vino, more than six years); they are often indicated by type of vines.


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